This is my reply to a question posted to slashdot: "Is Parallel Programming Just Too Hard?"
The problem with parallel programming is we don't have the right set of primitives. Right now the primitives are threads, mutexes, semaphores, shared memory and queues. This is the machine language of concurrency - it's too primitive to effective write lots of code by anyone who isn't a genius.
What we need is more advanced primitives. Here are my 2 or 3 top likely suspects:
- Concurrent Sequential Programs - CSP. This is the programming model behind Erlang - one of the most successful concurrent programming languages available. Writing large, concurrent, robust apps is as simple as 'hello world' in Erlang. There is a whole new way of thinking that is pretty much mind bending. However, it is that new methodology that is key to the concurrency and robustness of the end applications. Be warned, it's functional!
- Highly optimizing functional languages (HOFL) - These are in the proto-phase, and there isn't much available, but I think this will be the key to extremely high performance parallel apps. Erlang is nice, but not high performance computing, but HOFLs won't be as safe as Erlang. You get one or the other. The basic concept is most computation in high performance systems is bound up in various loops. A loop is a 'noop' from a semantic point of view. To get efficient highly parallel systems Cray uses loop annotations and special compilers to get more information about loops. In a functional language (such as Haskell) you would use map/fold functions or list comprehensions. Both of which convey more semantic meaning to the compiler. The compiler can auto-parallelize a functional-map where each individual map-computation is not dependent on any other.
- Map-reduce - the paper is elegant and really cool. It seems like this is a half way model between C++ and HOFLs that might tide people over.
In the end, the problem is the abstractions. People will consider threads and mutexes as dangerous and unnecessary as we consider manual memory allocation today.